AIMA

The Alternative Investment Management Association

Alternative Investment Management Association Representing the global hedge fund industry

You are:

Glossary

AIMA's Glossary has been developed for all those with an interest in the alternative investment industry - from the beginner to the advanced practitioner.

You will find a considerable overlap of content with the traditional fund management industry - the instruments used, the service providers employed, etc.  However, the hedge fund industry is individual in the way in which it uses these resources.

For reasons of law and accuracy, this is not a wiki.  It is a work-in-progress, however, and we invite you to submit new items for inclusion below (including the proposed definition).

  • We express our sincere thanks to Stanley Marchon, Vincent Kuhn, Nicolas Watin-Augouard, Stephen Foster and Sunil Gopalan for the creation of this resource. 
  • Special thanks are also extended to Anne Taulbut and Jennifer Nye of Katten Muchin Rosenman Cornish for the extensive legal review.
 
principal-protected products

See Principal-protected note.

principal-protected securities

See Principal-protected note.

Private Investments in Public Entities

Private Investments in Public Entities are typically made by funds following a so-called “Regulation D” investment strategy. There are two main types of PIPEs - traditional and structured. A traditional PIPE is one in which stock, either common or preferred, is issued at a set price to raise capital for the issuer: a private investment firm, mutual fund or other qualified investor will purchase a stock in a company at a discount to the current market value per share, for the purpose of raising capital. A structured PIPE, on the other hand, issues convertible debt (common or preferred shares).

private placement

The offer and sale of any security other than by way of public offer to a limited number of investors and which, if made in the US, is exempt from the registration requirements under the US Securities Act of 1933, as amended. See Regulation D.

proforma

A representation of a track record (see ‘Track Record’) that is developed to show the effect on actual performance of intended or potential adjustments for different fee structures, portfolio allocations or other variations in the investment structure upon which the original track record is based. It is important to note that a proforma is based on actual trading results and differs from a simulation, which models the hypothetical performance of a portfolio or investment approach that has yet to be applied or implemented in actual trading.

program trading

The purchase (or sale) of a large number of stocks contained in or comprising a portfolio. Originally called program trading when index funds and other institutional investors began to embark on large-scale buying or selling campaigns or "programs" to invest in a manner that replicates a target stock index, the term now also commonly includes computer-aided stock market buying or selling programs, and index arbitrage.

proprietary account

An account that a Futures Commission Merchant carries for itself or a closely related person, such as a parent, subsidiary or affiliate company, general partner, director, Associated Person, or an owner of ten percent or more of the capital stock. The FCM must segregate customer funds from funds related to proprietary accounts.

prospectus

The official document issued by a fund prior to its launch to describe the shares being offered to prospective investors. The information provided in the prospectus will be prescribed by regulators according to the type of investor to whom the fund is being promoted and the investment strategy proposed. A prospectus must generally include the characteristics of the proposed fund, such as investment objective and policies, services and fees. Investors are encouraged to read and understand a fund's prospectus before purchasing its shares.

put

An option contract that gives the holder the right but not the obligation to sell a specified quantity of a particular commodity or other interest at a given price (the "strike price") prior to or on a future date.

Suggest a new term or amendment

Registered users of our site are invited to submit suggestions for new terms and amendments to existing terms. If you are a registered user, please login here

Main Menu

  1. Home
  2. About
    1. Our Core Objectives
    2. AIMA's Policy Principles
    3. Meet the team
    4. AIMA Council
    5. Global Network
    6. Sponsoring Members
    7. Global Partners
    8. FAQs
    9. Opportunities at AIMA
  3. Join AIMA
    1. Benefits of Membership
    2. Membership Fees
    3. Application form
  4. Members
    1. AIMA Annual Reports
    2. AIMA Governance
    3. AIMA Logo
      1. Policy note
    4. AIMA Members' List
    5. AIMA Review of the Year
    6. Committees and Working Groups
    7. Weekly News
    8. Update Profile
  5. Investors
    1. AIMA Investor Services
    2. AIMA Members' List
    3. Investor Steering Committee
    4. Update Profile
  6. Regulation
    1. AIMA's Policy Principles
    2. Asset Management Regulation
      1. EU Asset Management Regulation
        1. AIFMD
        2. European Capital Markets Regulation
        3. MiFID / MiFIR
        4. UCITS
        5. European Venture Capital Directive
        6. Shareholder Rights Directive
        7. European Long Term Investment Fund Regulation
        8. Loan Origination Funds
        9. Capital Raising
        10. AIFMD-Related Events
      2. US Hedge Fund Adviser Regulations
        1. Registration and Reporting
        2. Incentive-Based Compensation
        3. JOBS Act
      3. Asia Pacific Asset Management regulation
      4. Other Jurisdictions’ Asset Management Regulation
      5. Systemically Important Financial Institutions ('SIFIs')
      6. Remuneration
        1. UK
        2. United States
        3. CRD IV and CRR
        4. AIFMD
        5. MiFID
      7. Shadow Banking
      8. Volcker Rule
      9. Other
      10. Systemic Risk Reporting
      11. Dealing Commision
      12. Corporate Governance
    3. Markets Regulation
      1. Bank/Capital Regulation
        1. Capital Requirements Directive
        2. EU Bank Structural Reforms
      2. Derivatives/Clearing
        1. EMIR
        2. MiFID / MiFIR
        3. MAD / MAR
        4. Dodd-Frank Act Title VII
        5. Hong Kong
        6. IOSCO
        7. Singapore
      3. High Frequency Trading
        1. ESMA Guidelines
        2. MiFID / MiFIR
        3. MAD / MAR
        4. Flash Crash
        5. IOSCO
        6. Germany
        7. CFTC Automated Trading
      4. Insurance Regulation
        1. Solvency II
      5. Market Abuse
        1. MAD / MAR
        2. Indices as Benchmarks
      6. Position Limits
        1. MiFID / MiFIR
        2. CFTC Position Limits
      7. Resolution of Financial Institutions
        1. Europe
          1. EU Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive
          2. EU Non-Bank Recovery and Resolution
        2. CPSS-IOSCO
        3. Financial Stability Board
        4. UK
        5. USA
      8. Short Selling
        1. EU Short Selling Regulation
        2. Hong Kong Short Selling Regulation
        3. US Short Selling Regulation
        4. Short Selling Bans
      9. Securities Settlement
      10. Shadow Banking
        1. International Shadow Banking
        2. EU Shadow Banking
      11. Trading
        1. MiFID / MiFIR
        2. Dodd-Frank Act
    4. Tax Affairs
      1. Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI)
        1. FATCA
        2. EU - AEFI
        3. OECD - Global Standard on AEFI
      2. Australia - Investment Manager Regime (IMR)
      3. Base Erosion - Profit Shifting (BEPS)
      4. FAIFs and FINROFs
      5. FIN 48 and IAS 12
      6. Financial Transaction Tax (FTT)
      7. UK Investment Management Exemption (IME)
      8. UK Offshore Funds Regime
      9. Other
    5. Search
    6. Resources
      1. Guidance Notes
      2. Jurisdictional Guides
      3. Noticeboard
        1. AIFMD
        2. BEPS
        3. CFTC Registration and Exemptions
        4. Dealing Commission
        5. Derivatives
        6. FATCA
        7. FTT
        8. High Frequency Trading
        9. MiFID / MiFIR
        10. Other Hot Asset Management Topics
        11. Other Hot Markets Topics
        12. Position Limits
        13. UK Partnership Tax Review
        14. Trading
        15. Volcker Rule
      4. Hedge Fund Manager Training
      5. Quarterly Regulatory Update
      6. Webinar Programme
      7. Regulatory Compliance Association
        1. About the Regulatory Compliance Association
        2. RCA Curricula and initiatives for alternative investment firms
        3. Meet the regulators and Sr. Fellows
  7. Education
    1. "The Case for Hedge Funds"
      1. Global Hedge Fund Industry Paper: The value of our industry
      2. The Value of the Hedge Fund Industry to Investors, Markets and the Broader Economy: Research commissioned by AIMA and KPMG
      3. The Evolution of an Industry: KPMG/AIMA Global Hedge Fund Survey
      4. Contributing to Communities: A global review of charitable and philanthropic activities by the hedge fund industry
      5. Beyond 60-40: The evolving role of hedge funds in institutional investor portfolios
      6. The Cost of Compliance: Global hedge fund survey by AIMA, MFA and KPMG
      7. Capital Markets and Economic Growth: Long-term trends and policy challenges
      8. Apples and Apples: How to better understand hedge fund performance
      9. The Extra Mile: Partnerships between hedge funds and investors
      10. Key articles by AIMA on the case for hedge funds
    2. AIMA Journal
      1. Recent issues
      2. Search AIMA Journal articles
      3. AIMA Journal Archive
    3. AIMA Guides to Sound Practices
    4. AIMA guides for institutional investors
    5. CAIA Association pages
      1. FAI
    6. Regulatory Compliance Association pages
      1. About the Regulatory Compliance Association
      2. RCA Curricula and initiatives for alternative investment firms
      3. Meet the regulators and Sr. Fellows
    7. Services to Start-up Managers
    8. Useful Websites
    9. Glossary
  8. Events
    1. AIMA Events
    2. AIMA webinars
    3. Industry events
  9. Media
    1. Press Releases & Statements
    2. AIMA's blog
    3. Media Coverage
      1. Articles by AIMA
        1. Archive
      2. AIMA in the news
      3. Video interviews
      4. Industry news
    4. Media Contact
    5. Press Materials
    6. Photos of Jack Inglis