AIMA

The Alternative Investment Management Association

Alternative Investment Management Association Representing the global hedge fund industry

You are:

Glossary

AIMA's Glossary has been developed for all those with an interest in the alternative investment industry - from the beginner to the advanced practitioner.

You will find a considerable overlap of content with the traditional fund management industry - the instruments used, the service providers employed, etc.  However, the hedge fund industry is individual in the way in which it uses these resources.

For reasons of law and accuracy, this is not a wiki.  It is a work-in-progress, however, and we invite you to submit new items for inclusion below (including the proposed definition).

  • We express our sincere thanks to Stanley Marchon, Vincent Kuhn, Nicolas Watin-Augouard, Stephen Foster and Sunil Gopalan for the creation of this resource. 
  • Special thanks are also extended to Anne Taulbut and Jennifer Nye of Katten Muchin Rosenman Cornish for the extensive legal review.
 
benchmark

Any basis of measurement (security or index), used as a reference point, against which a comparison and evaluation of performance of an investment portfolio can be made.

beta

Beta (β) of a portfolio is the portfolio’s sensitivity to market movements. It represents the change in the portfolio’s return for every 1% change in the market return. The sign of the beta (+/-) indicates whether, on average, the portfolio’s returns move in line with the market (+) or in the opposite direction (-). If β = 1.0, returns tend to mirror the market.  If β = 2.0, returns tend to be twice those of the market.  If β = -0.5, returns tend to be half that of the market.

beta neutral

Describes a fund with no sensitivity to broad market movements. Therefore, the fund's beta is close to zero.

bid

The purchase price offered for a commodity, currency, security or other asset.

Black-Scholes model
An algorithm/formula created by Fischer Black and Myron Scholes in 1973, used to estimate the fair value of a stock option at the grant date using the following variables: the expected risk-free interest rate, stock price, exercise price, volatility, and expected option term.
board of trade

A US term used to define any organized exchange or other trading facility for the trading of commodities.

bond

A debt security issued by entities such as corporations and governments in return for cash from the lender (investor). The issuer of a bond is effectively a borrower and is therefore required to pay interest to the lender throughout the life of the bond (at periodic intervals) and to repay the principal amount of the loan at maturity.

bond futures arbitrage

An approach that aims to profit from pricing inefficiencies between bonds and corresponding bond futures.

bottom-up investment process

An approach that seeks to identify investments that will produce strong returns, before assessing the influence that economic factors will have on those assets.

broker

A person paid a fee or commission for executing buy or sell orders for a customer.

Suggest a new term or amendment

Registered users of our site are invited to submit suggestions for new terms and amendments to existing terms. If you are a registered user, please login here

Main Menu

  1. Home
  2. About
    1. Our Core Objectives
    2. AIMA's Policy Principles
    3. Meet the team
    4. AIMA Council
    5. Global Network
    6. Sponsoring Members
    7. Global Partners
    8. FAQs
    9. Opportunities at AIMA
      1. Analyst, Tax Affairs
  3. Join AIMA
    1. Benefits of Membership
    2. Membership Fees
    3. Application form
  4. Members
    1. AIMA Annual Reports
    2. AIMA Governance
    3. AIMA Logo
      1. Policy note
    4. AIMA Members' List
    5. AIMA Review of the Year
    6. Committees and Working Groups
    7. Weekly News
    8. Update Profile
  5. Investors
    1. AIMA Investor Services
    2. AIMA Members' List
    3. Investor Steering Committee
    4. Update Profile
  6. Regulation
    1. AIMA's Policy Principles
    2. Asset Management Regulation
      1. EU Asset Management Regulation
        1. AIFMD
        2. European Capital Markets Regulation
        3. MiFID / MiFIR
        4. UCITS
          1. ETFs and Structured UCITS
        5. Venture Capital
      2. US Hedge Fund Adviser Regulations
        1. Registration and Reporting
        2. Incentive-Based Compensation
        3. JOBS Act
      3. Asia Pacific Asset Management regulation
      4. Other Jurisdictions’ Asset Management Regulation
      5. Regulation of NBFCs / SIFIS
      6. Supervision
        1. UK regulatory reform
        2. European Supervisory Authorities
        3. US Self-Regulatory Organisations
      7. Remuneration
        1. UK
        2. US
        3. CRD IV and CRR
        4. AIFMD
        5. MiFID
      8. Shadow Banking
      9. Volcker Rule
      10. Other
    3. Markets Regulation
      1. Bank/Capital Regulation
        1. Capital Requirements Directive
        2. EU Bank Structural Reforms
      2. Derivatives/Clearing
        1. EMIR
        2. MiFID / MiFIR
        3. MAD / MAR
        4. Dodd-Frank Act Title VII
        5. Hong Kong
        6. IOSCO
        7. Singapore
      3. High Frequency Trading
        1. ESMA Guidelines
        2. MiFID / MiFIR
        3. MAD / MAR
        4. Flash Crash
        5. IOSCO
        6. Germany
        7. CFTC Automated Trading
      4. Insurance Regulation
        1. Solvency II
      5. Market Abuse
        1. MAD / MAR
        2. Indices as Benchmarks
      6. Position Limits
        1. MiFID / MiFIR
        2. CFTC Position Limits
      7. Resolution of Financial Institutions
        1. Europe
          1. EU Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive
          2. EU Non-Bank Recovery and Resolution
        2. CPSS-IOSCO
        3. Financial Stability Board
        4. UK
        5. USA
      8. Short Selling
        1. EU Short Selling Regulation
        2. Hong Kong Short Selling Regulation
        3. US Short Selling Regulation
        4. Short Selling Bans
      9. Securities Settlement
      10. Shadow Banking
        1. International Shadow Banking
        2. EU Shadow Banking
      11. Trading
        1. MiFID / MiFIR
        2. Dodd-Frank Act
    4. Tax Affairs
      1. EU Savings Directive
      2. FAIFs and FINROFs
      3. FATCA
      4. FIN 48 and IAS 12
      5. Financial Transaction Tax
      6. Investment Manager Exemption
      7. UK Offshore Funds Regime
      8. Other
    5. Search
    6. Resources
      1. Guidance Notes
      2. Jurisdictional Guides
      3. Noticeboard
        1. FATCA
        2. Other Hot Asset Management Topics
        3. Other Hot Markets Topics
        4. UK Partnership Tax Review
        5. Volcker Rule
      4. Hedge Fund Manager Training
      5. Quarterly Regulatory Update
      6. Webinar Programme
  7. Education
    1. AIMA Journal
      1. Search AIMA Journal articles
      2. AIMA Journal Archive
    2. ‘Capital Markets and Economic Growth – Long-Term Trends and Policy Challenges'
    3. AIMA/KPMG reports on state of global hedge fund industry
    4. Roadmap to Hedge Funds
    5. Guides for institutional investment
    6. Industry-standard DDQs
    7. Sound Practices
    8. Industry Guides
    9. CAIA
      1. FAI
    10. Services to Start-up Managers
    11. Useful Websites
    12. 'The Alternative Answer'
    13. Glossary
  8. Events
    1. AIMA Events
    2. Industry Events
  9. Media
    1. Press Releases & Statements
    2. Media Coverage
      1. Articles by AIMA
        1. Archive
      2. Television interviews
    3. Media Contacts
    4. Press Materials
    5. Photos of Jack Inglis