AIMA

The Alternative Investment Management Association

Alternative Investment Management Association Representing the global hedge fund industry

You are:

Glossary

AIMA's Glossary has been developed for all those with an interest in the alternative investment industry - from the beginner to the advanced practitioner.

You will find a considerable overlap of content with the traditional fund management industry - the instruments used, the service providers employed, etc.  However, the hedge fund industry is individual in the way in which it uses these resources.

For reasons of law and accuracy, this is not a wiki.  It is a work-in-progress, however, and we invite you to submit new items for inclusion below (including the proposed definition).

  • We express our sincere thanks to Stanley Marchon, Vincent Kuhn, Nicolas Watin-Augouard, Stephen Foster and Sunil Gopalan for the creation of this resource. 
  • Special thanks are also extended to Anne Taulbut and Jennifer Nye of Katten Muchin Rosenman Cornish for the extensive legal review.
 
correction

A temporary decrease during a bull market. A market correction is a sometimes defined as a drop of at least 10%, but not more than 20% (25% on intraday trading).

correlation

Correlation  (R-squared) is a measure of the interdependence or strength of the relationship between two investments. It tells us something about the degree to which the variations of returns from their respective means move together. - If two investments are positively correlated, when one performs above its mean return, it is likely that the other will also perform above its own mean return. - If two investments are negatively correlated, when one performs above its mean return, it is likely that the other will perform below its mean return. Note that correlation says nothing about the mean returns themselves; they could both be up, or both down, or one could be up and one down.  To measure the strength of the relationship, we use the correlation coefficient.

correlation coefficient

A statistical measure of the interdependence of two or more random variables. Fundamentally, the value indicates how much of a change in one variable is explained by a change in another. Used in portfolio analysis and modeling. The correlation coefficient r is a measure of how nearly a scatterplot falls on a straight line. The correlation coefficient is always between -1 (perfect negative correlation) and +1 (perfect positive correlation).

cost of borrowing (in the context of margin lending)

Primarily refers to the interest charged on borrowed funds - for margin lending to be a successful investment strategy, the return needs to exceed the cost of borrowing. See Margin Lending.

counter-trend trading

In technical analysis, the method by which a trader takes a position contrary to the current market direction in anticipation of a change in that direction.

counterparty

The opposite party in a bilateral agreement, contract, or transaction. In the retail foreign exchange (or forex) context, the party to which a retail customer sends its funds.

country-specific investment strategy

An approach that involves a heavy concentration of investments, usually stocks, in one country, or a few countries within a geographical region.

CPO
See Commodity pool operator.
credit default swap

These are arrangements where the buyer pays a premium to the bank and receive a cash payment should a default event occur for a reference asset. It has the same economic effect as shorting a bond.

credit derivatives

Similar to insurance contracts, credit derivatives are used to transfer the risk of a company defaulting on its debt from one party to another. The use of credit derivatives makes it easier to take a short position on a company's debt, a trade that has traditionally been expensive and difficult in the underlying corporate bond market.

Suggest a new term or amendment

Registered users of our site are invited to submit suggestions for new terms and amendments to existing terms. If you are a registered user, please login here

Main Menu

  1. Home
  2. About
    1. Our Core Objectives
    2. AIMA's Policy Principles
    3. Meet the team
    4. AIMA Council
    5. Global Network
    6. Sponsoring Members
    7. Global Partners
    8. FAQs
    9. Opportunities at AIMA
  3. Join AIMA
    1. Benefits of Membership
    2. Membership Fees
    3. Application form
  4. Members
    1. AIMA Annual Reports
    2. AIMA Governance
    3. AIMA Logo
      1. Policy note
    4. AIMA Members' List
    5. AIMA Review of the Year
    6. Committees and Working Groups
    7. Weekly News
    8. Update Profile
  5. Investors
    1. AIMA Investor Services
    2. AIMA Members' List
    3. Investor Steering Committee
    4. Update Profile
  6. Regulation
    1. AIMA's Policy Principles
    2. Asset Management Regulation
      1. EU Asset Management Regulation
        1. AIFMD
        2. European Capital Markets Regulation
        3. MiFID / MiFIR
        4. UCITS
        5. European Venture Capital Directive
        6. Shareholder Rights Directive
        7. European Long Term Investment Fund Regulation
        8. Loan Origination Funds
        9. Capital Raising
        10. AIFMD-Related Events
      2. US Hedge Fund Adviser Regulations
        1. Registration and Reporting
        2. Incentive-Based Compensation
        3. JOBS Act
      3. Asia Pacific Asset Management regulation
      4. Other Jurisdictions’ Asset Management Regulation
      5. Systemically Important Financial Institutions ('SIFIs')
      6. Remuneration
        1. UK
        2. United States
        3. CRD IV and CRR
        4. AIFMD
        5. MiFID
      7. Shadow Banking
      8. Volcker Rule
      9. Other
      10. Systemic Risk Reporting
      11. Dealing Commision
      12. Corporate Governance
    3. Markets Regulation
      1. Bank/Capital Regulation
        1. Capital Requirements Directive
        2. EU Bank Structural Reforms
      2. Derivatives/Clearing
        1. EMIR
        2. MiFID / MiFIR
        3. MAD / MAR
        4. Dodd-Frank Act Title VII
        5. Hong Kong
        6. IOSCO
        7. Singapore
      3. High Frequency Trading
        1. ESMA Guidelines
        2. MiFID / MiFIR
        3. MAD / MAR
        4. Flash Crash
        5. IOSCO
        6. Germany
        7. CFTC Automated Trading
      4. Insurance Regulation
        1. Solvency II
      5. Market Abuse
        1. MAD / MAR
        2. Indices as Benchmarks
      6. Position Limits
        1. MiFID / MiFIR
        2. CFTC Position Limits
      7. Resolution of Financial Institutions
        1. Europe
          1. EU Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive
          2. EU Non-Bank Recovery and Resolution
        2. CPSS-IOSCO
        3. Financial Stability Board
        4. UK
        5. USA
      8. Short Selling
        1. EU Short Selling Regulation
        2. Hong Kong Short Selling Regulation
        3. US Short Selling Regulation
        4. Short Selling Bans
      9. Securities Settlement
      10. Shadow Banking
        1. International Shadow Banking
        2. EU Shadow Banking
      11. Trading
        1. MiFID / MiFIR
        2. Dodd-Frank Act
    4. Tax Affairs
      1. Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI)
        1. FATCA
        2. EU - AEFI
        3. OECD - Global Standard on AEFI
      2. Australia - Investment Manager Regime (IMR)
      3. Base Erosion - Profit Shifting (BEPS)
      4. FAIFs and FINROFs
      5. FIN 48 and IAS 12
      6. Financial Transaction Tax (FTT)
      7. UK Investment Management Exemption (IME)
      8. UK Offshore Funds Regime
      9. Other
    5. Search
    6. Resources
      1. Guidance Notes
      2. Jurisdictional Guides
      3. Noticeboard
        1. AIFMD
        2. BEPS
        3. CFTC Registration and Exemptions
        4. Dealing Commission
        5. Derivatives
        6. FATCA
        7. FTT
        8. High Frequency Trading
        9. MiFID / MiFIR
        10. Other Hot Asset Management Topics
        11. Other Hot Markets Topics
        12. Position Limits
        13. UK Partnership Tax Review
        14. Trading
        15. Volcker Rule
      4. Hedge Fund Manager Training
      5. Quarterly Regulatory Update
      6. Webinar Programme
      7. Regulatory Compliance Association
        1. About the Regulatory Compliance Association
        2. RCA Curricula and initiatives for alternative investment firms
        3. Meet the regulators and Sr. Fellows
  7. Education
    1. "The Case for Hedge Funds"
      1. Global Hedge Fund Industry Paper: The value of our industry
      2. The Value of the Hedge Fund Industry to Investors, Markets and the Broader Economy: Research commissioned by AIMA and KPMG
      3. The Evolution of an Industry: KPMG/AIMA Global Hedge Fund Survey
      4. Contributing to Communities: A global review of charitable and philanthropic activities by the hedge fund industry
      5. Beyond 60-40: The evolving role of hedge funds in institutional investor portfolios
      6. The Cost of Compliance: Global hedge fund survey by AIMA, MFA and KPMG
      7. Capital Markets and Economic Growth: Long-term trends and policy challenges
      8. Apples and Apples: How to better understand hedge fund performance
      9. The Extra Mile: Partnerships between hedge funds and investors
      10. Key articles by AIMA on the case for hedge funds
    2. AIMA Journal
      1. Recent issues
      2. Search AIMA Journal articles
      3. AIMA Journal Archive
    3. AIMA Guides to Sound Practices
    4. AIMA guides for institutional investors
    5. CAIA Association pages
      1. FAI
    6. Regulatory Compliance Association pages
      1. About the Regulatory Compliance Association
      2. RCA Curricula and initiatives for alternative investment firms
      3. Meet the regulators and Sr. Fellows
    7. Services to Start-up Managers
    8. Useful Websites
    9. Glossary
  8. Events
    1. AIMA Events
    2. AIMA webinars
    3. Industry events
  9. Media
    1. Press Releases & Statements
    2. AIMA's blog
    3. Media Coverage
      1. Articles by AIMA
        1. Archive
      2. AIMA in the news
      3. Video interviews
      4. Industry news
    4. Media Contact
    5. Press Materials
    6. Photos of Jack Inglis