AIMA

The Alternative Investment Management Association

Alternative Investment Management Association Representing the global hedge fund industry

Glossary

AIMA's Glossary has been developed for all those with an interest in the alternative investment industry - from the beginner to the advanced practitioner.

You will find a considerable overlap of content with the traditional fund management industry - the instruments used, the service providers employed, etc.  However, the hedge fund industry is individual in the way in which it uses these resources.

For reasons of law and accuracy, this is not a wiki.  It is a work-in-progress, however, and we invite you to submit new items for inclusion below (including the proposed definition).

  • We express our sincere thanks to Stanley Marchon, Vincent Kuhn, Nicolas Watin-Augouard, Stephen Foster and Sunil Gopalan for the creation of this resource. 
  • Special thanks are also extended to Anne Taulbut and Jennifer Nye of Katten Muchin Rosenman Cornish for the extensive legal review.
 
Sortino ratio
A measure of risk-adjusted performance that indicates the level of excess return per unit of downside risk. It differs from the Sharpe ratio (see Sharpe ratio) in that it recognises investors’ greater tolerance for volatility in profitable periods (‘good volatility’) compared with their tolerance for volatility in periods of negative performance (‘bad volatility’), and uses a measure of ‘bad volatility’ as provided by semi-deviation - the annualised standard deviation of the returns that fall below a target return. Also called the "upside potential ratio".
special situations

An event-driven investment strategy, in which the manager seeks to take advantage of unique corporate situations that provide the potential for investment gains. See Event driven.

specialist system

A type of trading commonly used for the exchange trading of securities in which one individual or firm acts as a market maker in a particular security, with the obligation to provide fair and orderly trading in that security by offsetting temporary imbalances in supply and demand by trading for the specialist's own account. See Open outcry.

speculative bubble

A rapid run-up in prices caused by excessive buying that is unrelated to any of the basic, underlying factors affecting the supply or demand for a commodity or other asset. Speculative bubbles are usually associated with a "bandwagon" effect in which speculators rush to buy the commodity (in the case of futures, "to take positions") before the price trend ends, and an even greater rush to sell the commodity (unwind positions) when prices reverse.

speculator

In commodity futures, an individual who does not hedge, but who trades with the objective of achieving profits through the successful anticipation of price movements.

spot

Market of immediate delivery of and payment for the product.

spot price

The price at which a physical commodity for immediate delivery is selling at a given time and place.

spread

(1) The difference in the value between the Bid and Offer prices. (2)The purchase of one futures delivery month against the sale of another futures delivery month of the same commodity; the purchase of one delivery month of one commodity against the sale of that same delivery month of a different commodity; or the purchase of one commodity in one market against the sale of the commodity in another market, to take advantage of a profit from a change in price relationships. The term spread is also used to refer to the difference between the price of a futures month and the price of another month of the same commodity. A spread can also apply to options. See Arbitrage.

squeeze
A market situation in which the lack of supplies tends to force shorts to cover their positions by offset at higher prices.
SRO
See Self-regulatory Organisation.
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